Typically, networking hardware includes gateways, routers, network bridges, switches, hubs, and repeaters. But it also includes hybrid network devices such as multilayer switches, protocol converters, bridge routers, proxy servers, firewalls, network address translators, multiplexers, network interface controllers, wireless network interface controllers, modems, ISDN terminal adapters, line drivers, wireless access points, networking cables and other related hardware.
The most common kind of networking hardware today is a copper-based Ethernet adapter because of its standard inclusion on most modern computer systems. Wireless networking has, however, become increasingly popular, especially for portable and handheld devices.
Taking a wider view, mobile phones, PDAs and even modern coffee machines may also be considered networking hardware. As technology advances and IP-based networks are integrated into building infrastructure and household utilities, network hardware will becomes an ambiguous term owing to the vastly increasing number of "network capable" endpoints.